BULLYING BEHAVIOR IN EDUCATION
One of the formal educational institutions is the school, which has a responsibility in the formation of characters and support the development of potential learners (Januarko 2013). Reality in the school there are still many students who have not achieved optimal development. One of the phenomena that occurs in the world of education today is violence. Violence (bullying) that occurs in schools is usually a direct or indirect violence, both verbal and non verbal violence (Lestari 2016).
According to (Allanson et al. 2015), indicate that there are two types of bullying: direct and indirect. Direct bullying, which includes both physical (hitting, punching, kicking, slapping, pushing, and choking) and verbal bullying (name-calling, threatening, teasing, and spreading rumors that are hurtful about another person and verbal actions), and the indirect Bullying is more psychological in nature such as in spreading rumors, back stabbing, and persuading others to dislike a specific individual.
(Januarko 2013) defines bullying as an act of intimidation by a stronger party to a weaker party. Bullying has a great opportunity to imitate because this negative behavior is most likely done by students (Levianti 2008). Students tend to bully after they themselves have been hurt by stronger people.
(Sucipto 2012) said that bullying behavior is grouped into 5 categories: 1) Direct physical contact, such as hitting, pushing, remembering, grabbing, kicking, pinching, clawing, blackmailing and damaging the belongings of others. 2) Direct verbal contact, such as threatening, humiliating, degrading, disturbing, given the call name (name-calling), criticize, intimidate and spread gossip). 3) Direct non-verbal behaviors, such as cynical look, stick out tongues and display degrading facial expressions. 4) Indirect non-verbal behavior, such as silencing someone, isolating and ignoring. 5) Sexual harassment, sometimes categorized as physical aggression.
Bullying is not only a negative impact on victims but also for bullying. Bullying students have the potential to become criminals from an early age or in the future. Bullying also occurs when the supervision and ethical guidance of teachers is low, schools with very rigid discipline, improper guidance, and inconsistent rules. Class differences, such as seniority, ethnicity, economics, and religion become one of the triggers of bullying. The tradition of seniority is often extended by the students themselves as latent events, for them the desire to continue the issue of seniority exists for entertainment, vengeance, envy, or seeking popularity, continuing tradition, or to continue power (Levianti 2008).
Based on the problem of bullying in school, this review will discuss about, the factors that influence someone do bullying, impact of bullying, and how is alternative or solution to bullying.
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE A PERSON DOING BULLYING
Many factors that can trigger the occurrence of bullying, among others: temperament and personality with a low control. Aggressive behavior and impulsivity are often associated with Bullying behavior. Indifference and low self esteem and lack of assertion are often associated with victim (Levianti 2008).
According to (Lestari 2016) there are several factors that influence a person doing bullying to others, the factors of the family, the factor of the school environment, the factors of mass media, cultural factors and peer factors.
Some research results indicate that the attitude of parents who are too excessive in protecting their children, making them vulnerable to bullying. The clutter of parental parenting, parental divorce, unstable parents of feelings and thoughts, parents who berate each other, humiliate, quarrel in front of their children, hostile and never get along, trigger depression and stress for the child. A teenager who grows in a family that implements a negative communication pattern such as sarcasm (sharp cynicism) will tend to mimic the habit in their daily lives.
The tendency of schools that often ignore the existence of bullying to make students who become bullying actors increasingly gain reinforcement against the behavior. In addition, bullying can occur in schools if the supervision and ethical guidance of teachers is low, schools with very rigid discipline, improper guidance and inconsistent rules. Students tend to cover up this and solve it with their playmates at school to reflect independence.
According to research that has been done states that 56.9% of children imitate the scenes of the movie he watched, generally they imitate his movements (64%) and his words (43%). This can create violent and violent child behavior which further triggers bullying by children against their friends at school.
Criminal factors of culture became one of the causes of the emergence of bullying behavior. The chaotic political atmosphere, the uncertain economy, prejudice and discrimination, conflicts in society, and ethnocentric, can encourage children and adolescents to become depressed, stressed, arrogant and abusive.
Peer Friend Factor
Peer groups who have problems at school will have a bad impact on other friends such as behaving and saying harshly to teachers or fellow friends and ditching. Children when interacting in school and with friends around the house, sometimes encouraged to do bullying. Some children do bullying to prove to their peers to be accepted into the group, even though they are not comfortable doing so.
According to opinion (Benítez & Justicia 2006) the factors that influence a person doing bullying are:
Personality, Temperament, impulsiveness
Certain personal characteristics such as sociability or impulsiveness can explain how one reacts in certain situations. Several studies have found a relationship between violent behavior, impulsiveness and the child’s temperament. A temperament characterized by high levels of activity, inflexibility, difficulty in life transition and being prone to frustration and distraction makes the child less understanding, have less self control and be more impulsive.
Intelligence, School achievement and social adjustment
Longitudinal studies have shown the relationship between low verbal intelligence, low school performance, lack of problem-solving skills and precarious social skills with the risk of being aggressive and behaving violently.
Characteristics of the family home and parents’ child-rising style
The family is the first socialization model for children, and doubtless is the key element in the origin of violent behaviors. A large number of studies have investigated family influence as a predictive factors of violent behavior. Family destructing: change in traditional roles, absence of one parent, lack of attention. Abuse and violent modeling in the nuclear family, where the child learns to solve conflicts using physical harm or verbal aggression. Family models where one learns that power is exerted by being the strongest, with a lack of negotiation and dialogue. Lack of affection between s pouses, with absence of security and emotional warmth
- BULLYING IMPACTS
Victims or offenders have distinctive characteristics. Characteristics of victims of bullying are those whose appearance of daily behavior is different in body size physically smaller, taller or heavier than most children or adolescents whose age comes from ethnic or cultural backgrounds that are different from most children or adolescents in the neighborhood have the ability Or special talents of certain ability limitations such as attention decit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorders mental retardation and others.
Generally a child or teen bullying victim is a child who is easily nervous anchors always feel insecure, shy, quiet, low self-esteem has physical defects or mental behavior problems or neurological development disorders. While the characteristics of children or adolescents bullying is hyperactive, aggressive, destructive, enjoy dominance over other children or adolescents, tend to be angry, irritable and have a low tolerance of frustration. They also tend to be difficult to process social information (Surilena 2016).
One of the most obvious effects of bullying is the disruption of physical health. Some of the physical effects that are usually caused by bullying are headache, sore throat, flu, cough, chapped lips, and chest pain. Even in extreme cases such as incidents occurring in IPDN, this physical impact can result in death. Other impacts that are less visible, but the long-term effects are decreased psychological well-being and poor social adjustment.
The difficulty of adjusting to the social environment also arose in the victims. They want to move to another school or get out of school, and even if they are still in school, they are usually disturbed academic achievement or often intentionally not to go to school. The most extreme of these psychological outcomes is the possibility of psychological disorders in the victims of bullying, such as excessive anxiety, fear, depression, suicide, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Levianti 2008).
Other impacts that are less visible, but the long-term effects are decreased psychological wellbeing and poor social adjustment. From the research that has been done, when experiencing bullying the victim feels a lot of negative emotions (anger, resentment, irritation, distress, fear, shame, sad, uncomfortable, threatened) but helpless face it. In the long run this emotion can lead to the emergence of low self-esteem that he is not worth (Sucipto 2012).
ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS ON BULLYING
Bullying has become a global problem that can not be ignored anymore. Many things must be done to save the psychological development of children and adolescents. Early violence is not part of their psychological development, therefore many elements must be involved, both parents, the school, and even the government. According to (Sucipto 2012) there are several things that can be done to prevent among others: 1) parents get used to giving positive feed back to children so they learn good social behavior and good and get the appropriate interaction model, not like bullying and aggression . Use an alternative punishment to a child by not involving physical or psychological violence. In addition, parents want to establish relationships and consultation with the school if the child becomes a bully or a victim. 2) the school creates a positive and conducive environment, for example by practicing discipline without resorting to the punishment of violence.
Equally important to raise the awareness of the school not to ignore the bullying behavior in the school environment. Efforts that teachers and parents need to make to deal with bullying behavior in the school environment. Observe the child’s symptoms – symptoms changes, and immediately do approach him. Calm in the act, assuring the child that he has to get protection from the bullying behavior Report to the teacher / school side for immediate investigation Request counselor (teacher BK) school to investigate what had happened. Ask the school to give you info on what exactly has happen Teach children ways of dealing with bullying
Strategies Facing Bullying in schools are, teach students to hide anger or sadness. When he seemed to react the bullying will be happy. Teach children to look at the eyes of the bullying. Teach children to stand upright, heads up in the face of bullying. Not walking alone. Stay calm under any circumstances. When in danger immediately step aside.
A more effective solution is a program that makes the social system the goal of change, rather than just focusing on individual changes from both the offender and the victim. One of the most comprehensive programs aimed at tackling bullying and proving effective is the bully busters program. The focus of this program is to change the social system so that the appearance of bullying can be avoided. The program has several key principles:
The first major principle is that changing the environment is more powerful than changing individuals per individual. Problem bullying should be seen as a function of interaction between two parties, so in changing both parties (the perpetrator and the victim) must be changed and the pattern of relationship and interaction between the two must also be changed.
The second principle, prevention is better than intervention. This principle is a basic principle that is always used in various problems that occur, however the prevention of bullying problems is more important than intervention after the bullying.
The third principle, namely that in changing the environment needed support and understanding from various parties, especially teachers. Classroom management, establishing rules that apply in the classroom and developing solutions to problematic problems while at the same time still being demanded by standards is a task that is not easy (Hidayati 2012).
In intervening on bullying issues, there are eleven approaches to bullying in schools, both preventive and intervention, namely: first, approaching policy. Second, motivate students. Third, create a classroom atmosphere by creating a good relationship in the classroom. Fourthly, the curriculum provides information on what bullying is, the impact it has on the victim and the help that students get. Fifth, overcoming social prejudice and unwanted attitudes such as SARA. Sixth, supervision and monitoring of student behavior outside the classroom. Seventh, involving students who have been trained as group mediators to help and resolve conflicts. Eighth, giving a form of non-physical penalty or sanctions. Ninth, involving parents of bullying victims and bullying actors and inviting them to come to school and to discuss how bullying behaviors can be changed. Tenth, organizes a community conference, where victims are encouraged to express their grief in the presence of people who have bullied and also with friends or supporters of those involved in bullying events. Eleventh, other approaches aimed at impacting students’ positive behavior change in bullying. This research uses behaviorism theory (Arini 2016).
Bullying is an act of intimidation by a stronger party against a weaker party. Bullying has a great opportunity to imitate because this negative behavior is most likely done by students. Factors that influence a person doing bullying is a factor of family, school, culture, mass media and peers. One of the most obvious effects of bullying is the disruption of physical health. The difficulty of adjusting to the social environment also arose in the victims. Other impacts that are less visible, but the long-term effects are decreased psychological wellbeing and poor social adjustment. A more effective solution is a program that makes the social system the goal of change, rather than just focusing on individual changes from both the offender and the victim.
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